Emergency preparedness is important at several levels (personal, household, community, regional, state, and national), together with the state and national governments having critical roles. The federal government provides substantial funding for disaster preparedness and response and, to a large extent, establishes the frame that’s subsequently followed by countries, regions, and communities. In disaster response, the funding and planning are normally from the top down, whereas the response and use of resources are usually from the bottom up. To put it differently, as resources are exhausted at the local level, support is requested in another level, like the state, which asks federal aid. Recent concepts of tragedy and aftermath response and preparation include the involvement of families and neighborhoods and even have started to address needs at the individual level. An effective response to a disaster requires the interaction of resources and personnel from several agencies in an organized and coordinated fashion in accordance with a well-formulated plan. Although this preparation has increased in recent times, the focus on the special needs of children and the addition of pediatric experience in the preparation stages is still minimal or, in many cases, nonexistent.
Local authorities are the first line of defense in emergencies and are primarily responsible for handling the response to most disasters. When a local government receives a warning that a crisis could be imminent, its initial priorities would be to warn citizens and take whatever actions are required to minimize harm and protect property and life. If needed, an evacuation may be ordered. The emergency operations plan is in the middle of comprehensive emergency planning. This plan spells out the range of activities needed for community response. Unfortunately, these records have rarely contained any pediatric consideration, and in only the rarest of instances have pediatricians been a part of the planning procedure.
All countries have laws that explain the responsibilities of the state government in crises and disasters. These laws provide governors and state agencies with the ability to plan for and execute the necessary measures to respond to and recover from crises. State emergency-management legislation explains the duties and powers of the governor, whose jurisdiction includes the ability to declare a state of emergency and decide when to terminate this statement.